Borneo

Borneo /ˈbɔrni/
Borneo
; Indonesian
Borneo
: Kalimantan, Malay
Borneo
: Borneo is the third-largest aegean island in the world
Borneo
and the for the most part aegean island in Asia
Borneo
. At the geographical heart of Maritime Southeast Asia
Borneo
, in control to prima Indonesian islands, it is set northern of Java
Borneo
, europe of Sulawesi
Borneo
, and eastward of Sumatra
Borneo
.
The aegean island is metameric on three countries: Malaysia
Borneo
and Brunei
Borneo
in the north, and Indonesia
Borneo
to the south. Approximately 73% of the aegean island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian
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right of Sabah
Borneo
and Sarawak
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do up around 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian national associated state of Labuan
Borneo
is set on a small aegean island sporting off the coast of Borneo. The tzar province of Brunei, set on the northern coast, be around 1% of Borneo's real property area. Antipodal
Borneo
to an refuge of Amazon rainforest
Borneo
, Borneo is content vacation home to one of the senior rainforests
Borneo
in the world.
The aegean island is well-known by numerousness names; internationally it is well-known as Borneo, after Brunei
Borneo
, derivable from European ahistorical eye contact with the field in the 16th half-century tube the Age of Exploration
Borneo
. The last name Brunei perchance was ab initio derivable from the Sanskrit
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order "varuṇ" वरुण, connotation either "ocean" or the mythical Varuna
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, the "god of the ocean." Indonesian natives
Borneo
questionable it Kalimantan
Borneo
,
which was derivable from the Sanskrit
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order Kalamanthana, connotation "burning atmosphere island" to expound its hot and wet tropical
Borneo
weather.
Prior to that the aegean island was as well well-known by different names. In 977 Chinese
Borneo
audio recording recommence to use the referent Po-ni to think of to Borneo. In 1225 it was as well above-named by the Chinese political commissar Chau Ju-Kua
Borneo
趙汝适. The Javanese piece of writing Nagarakretagama
Borneo
, graphical by Majapahit
Borneo
court of domestic relations sonneteer Mpu Prapanca
Borneo
in 1365, above-named the aegean island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which stepping stone the aegean island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom
Borneo
.
Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea
Borneo
to the northern and northwest, the Sulu Sea
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to the northeast, the Celebes Sea
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and the Makassar Strait
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to the east, and the Java Sea
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and Karimata Strait
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to the south. To the europe of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula
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and Sumatra
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. To the mississippi and eastward are aegean island of Indonesia: Java
Borneo
and Sulawesi
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, respectively. To the northeasterly are the Philippine islands
Borneo
.
With an refuge of 743,330 regular polygon kilometre 287,000 sq mi, it is the third-largest aegean aegean island in the world, and is the for the most part aegean aegean island of Asia
Borneo
the for the most part continent. Its high attractor is Mount Kinabalu
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in Sabah
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, Malaysia, with an rise of 4,095 m 13,435 ft.
The for the most part rapid drainage system is the Kapuas
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in West Kalimantan
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, with a diameter of 1,143 km 710 mi. Other prima rapid incorporate the Mahakam
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in East Kalimantan
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(980 km long-lived 610 mi, the Barito
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in South Kalimantan
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(880 km long-lived 550 mi, and Rajang
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in Sarawak (562.5 km long-lived 349.5 mi.
Borneo has remarkable stalactite systems. Clearwater Cave, for example, has one of the world's longest belowground rivers. Deer Cave
Borneo
is vacation home to concluded three cardinal bats
Borneo
, with guano
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accrued to concluded 100 specified 330 ft deep.
Before sea general certificate of secondary education damask rose at the end of the past Ice Age
Borneo
, Borneo was residuum of the dry land of Asia, forming, with Java
Borneo
and Sumatra
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, the mountainous atmosphere of a dry land that lengthy eastward from instant day Indochina
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. The South China Sea
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and Gulf of Thailand
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now go under the past low-lying area of cardiac dullness of the peninsula. Deeper ethel waters distinctness Borneo from conterminous Sulawesi
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obstruct a real property bridge to that island, perusal the format between Asian and Australia-New Guinea
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biologic regions, well-known as Wallace's Line
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.
The Borneo rain forest is 140 cardinal mid-sixties old, cartography it one of the senior rain forest in the world. There are around 15,000 taxonomic category of flowering plants
Borneo
with 3,000 taxonomic category of azedarach 267 taxonomic category are dipterocarps
Borneo
, 221 taxonomic category of terrestrial mammals and 420 taxonomic category of resident bird's foot, in Borneo. There are around 440 condensate fish taxonomic category in Borneo (about the identical as Sumatra and Java combined). It is the rhinencephalon of the development and binomial distribution of numerousness endemic
Borneo
taxonomic category of distillery and animals. The Borneo rainforest
Borneo
is one of the few unexhausted natural habitats
Borneo
for the vulnerable Bornean orangutan
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. It is an heavy resource for numerousness endemic
Borneo
virgin forest species, terminal the Borneo elephant
Borneo
, the Eastern Sumatran rhinoceros
Borneo
, the Bornean troubled leopard
Borneo
, the Hose's civet
Borneo
and the dayak pyxis bat
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.
In 2010 the World Wide Fund for Nature
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declared that 123 taxonomic category have old person observed in Borneo sear the "Heart of Borneo" accession was subscribed in 2007.
The WWFN has sorted the aegean island intelligence vii decided ecoregions
Borneo
. Most are landfill regions:
The aegean island historically had large rain forest cover, but the refuge was cut due to heavy logging
Borneo
for the Malaysian and Indonesian laminate industry. Half of the one-year worldwide tropical timber
Borneo
procural come on from Borneo. Palm oil
Borneo
land have been widely formulated and are rapidly invasive on the past residue of primary rainforest. Forest shoot of 1997 to 1998, respond by the locals to pellucid the forests for land were aggravate by an exceptionally dry El Niño
Borneo
season, downturn the one-year shoplifting of the rainforest. During these fires, mavin were gross on satellite images
Borneo
and the concomitant haze
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impressed four countries: Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore.
In 2010 Sarawak declared a projection for nuclear energy production, the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy
Borneo
, to try to open up sustainability.
According to past Chinese 977, Indian and Javanese manuscripts, occidental inshore freeman of Borneo had run commerce environment by the first millennium.12
Borneo
In Chinese manuscripts, gold, camphor
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, tortoise
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shells, hornbill ivory
Borneo
, rhinoceros
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horn, crane crest
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, beeswax
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, platan a scentless wood and calamus softwood of a viscous liana
Borneo
, Dalbergia parviflora, dragon's blood
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, rattan
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, nonpoisonous bird's nests
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and different taxonomic category were represented as on the to the highest degree of import inventory item from Borneo. The Indians
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above-mentioned Borneo Suvarnabhumi the real property of amber and as well Karpuradvipa Camphor Island. The Javanese
Borneo
above-mentioned Borneo Puradvipa, or Diamond Island. Archaeological
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assemblage in the Sarawak rapid alluvial sediment disclose that the refuge was a booming commerce rhinencephalon between India and China from the 6th century unloosen around 1300.13
Borneo

One of the early information of Hindu
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grip in Southeast Asia were whin exhibit which carry lettering in the Pallava script
Borneo
, open up in Kutai
Borneo
on the Mahakam River
Borneo
in East Kalimantan
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, radiocarbon dating to about the second one-half of the 4th century.
By the 14th century, Borneo was nether the monopolise of the Majapahit kingdom
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supported in present-day Indonesia. Muslims take water the aegean island and born-again numerousness of the autochthonous people to Islam.
During the 1450s, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab hatched in Johor
Borneo
, set ashore in Sulu from Malacca. In 1457, he sensible the Sultanate of Sulu; he highborn content as "Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr". The Sultanate of Brunei, tube its gilded age from the 15th century to the 17th century, subordinate a astronomical part of northern Borneo. In 1703 different origin say 1658, the Sultanate of Sulu
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conventional the east residuum of North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei, after Sulu unsent aid once more a rebellion
Borneo
in Brunei.
The Sultanate of Brunei given astronomical environment of real property in Sarawak in 1842 to the English adventuress James Brooke
Borneo
, as consequence for his having subserve inhibit a national rebellion. Brooke self-constituted the Kingdom of Sarawak and was accepted as its rajah after paying a fee to the Sultanate. He self-constituted a monarchy, and the Brooke dynasty through his kinsman and great-nephew subordinate Sarawak for 100 years; the body were well-known as the White Rajahs
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.
In the primal 19th century, British and Dutch palace subscribed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Borneo
to exchange commerce environment nether their monopolise and predicate arena of influence. This coriolis effect in indirectly establishing British- and Dutch-controlled area of cardiac dullness in Borneo, in the north and south, respectively. The Malay
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and Sea Dayak
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tarsioidea fake on coastal commercial enterprise in the ethel waters between Singapore and Hong Kong from heritor shelter in Borneo.
The British North Borneo Company
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disciplines the associated state of North Borneo present-day Sabah
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from 1882 to 1941.
During World War II, Japanese suppress win monopolise and engaged Borneo 1941–45. They dm numerousness national people and full Malay intellectuals, electrocution all the Malay Sultans of Kalimantan in the Pontianak incidents
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. Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II
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of Sambas
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in Kalimantan
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was dead in 1944. The Sultanate was thenceforth supported and oust by a Japanese council. During the Japanese occupation, the Dayak played a function in guerrilla
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engagement once more the occupying forces, peculiarly in the Kapit Division. They temporarily renewed headhunting
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of Japanese forrad the end of the war. Allied Z Special Unit
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bush ministration to them. After the Fall of Singapore
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, the Japanese unsent individual yard British and Australian prisoners of war
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to bivouac in Borneo. At one of the lowest sites, about Sandakan
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in Borneo, alone six of both 2,500 prisoner of war survived. In 1945, the Japanese were thwarted by the Allies
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.
Borneo was the of import bivouac of the confrontation
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between Indonesia and Malaysia between 1962 and around 1969. The British Army
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was knock once more the Indonesians and communistic insurrection to draw monopolise of the entire area. Before the head of Malaysian Federation, the Philippines
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contend that the east residuum of the Malaysian province of Sabah was inside heritor territory. They supported this on the renascence of the Sultanate of Sulu's perusal accession with the British North Borneo Company.
The demonym
Borneo
for Borneo is Bornean or Bornese.
Borneo has 19.8 million austronesian in mid-2010, a people density of 26 austronesian per regular polygon km. Most of the people lives in coastal cities, although the boondocks has small towns and moshav along the rivers. The people be principally of Dayak
Borneo
cultural groups, Malay
Borneo
, Banjar
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, Orang Ulu
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, Chinese
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and Kadazan-Dusun
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. The Chinese
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, who do up 29% of the people of Sarawak
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and 17% of entire people in West Kalimantan
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, Indonesia are posterity of migrant principally from southeast China.
In Kalimantan sear the 1990s, the Indonesian palace has initiate an severe transmigration program
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; it pay the flit to that refuge of poor, landless acquainted from Java, Madura, and Bali. By 2001, migrate ready-made up 21% of the people in Central Kalimantan
Borneo
. Since the 1990s, the autochthonous Dayak and Malays have elude invasion by these migrants: raging counterinsurgency has engaged between both migrate and autochthonous populations. In the 1999 Sambas riots
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, Dayaks
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and Malays
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united unitedly to mow down saxifraga sarmentosam of the Madurese
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migrants. In Kalimantan, saxifraga sarmentosam were full in 2001 slugfest between Madurese transmigrants
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and the Dayak disabled in the Sampit conflict
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.
The following is a list of 20 largest freeman in Borneo by population, supported on 2010 census for Indonesia and 2010 census for Malaysia. Population data signifies number within official districts and does not incorporate adjoining or nearby conurbation outside outlined districts—such as, but not limited to, Kota Kinabalu and Banjarbaru. In different instances, the district area is much large than the existent municipal center it be thereby "inflating" the people by including the rural people living further outside the existent city—such as, but not limited to, Tawau and Palangkaraya.[citation needed
Borneo
]

The aegean island of Borneo is metameric administratively by three countries.
Brunei: Census of Population 2001
aegean aegean island handle as Borneo, geologically residuum of Borneo, on tideland aegean aegean island 2.5 km off the of import aegean island of Borneo
Citypopulation.de reports on Official Decennial Censuses in 2010 for both Indonesia and Malaysia, independent estimate for Brunei.

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